Tuesday, November 24, 2009

If you missed the Unit 4 Sensation Quiz...

If you missed the quiz because you were absent or giving blood at the blood drive you will need to be ready to take it on 11/30 or 12/1 upon return from our Thanksgiving break.

Unit 5 - Perception Reading - Part one due on Mon. 11/30 (a) and Tues. 12/1 (b)

Bernstein Text Chapter 5 Pp. 150 – 192

Perception... How we make sense of our senses.

As you read the text take Cornell Notes and be sure you understand the concepts represented be the following questions:

Part 1 (pages 150-172) Mon. 11/30 and Tues. 12/1

  1. What is the “Perception Paradox?”
  2. Explain and compare the three main approaches to perception: ecological, constructivist, and computationalist.
  3. What is psychophysics? (not just Niebuhr, Moore and Guerrero being crazy)
  4. What is an “Absolute Threshold?”
  5. Explain the difference between “subliminal” and “supraliminal” perception.
  6. What do YOU think about the power of subliminal messages?
  7. What is “Signal Detection” theory?
  8. Describe what a “Just-noticeable Difference” is and explain “Weber’s Law.”
  9. Explain how Fechner’s law and Stevens’s Power Law relate to our perception of intensity of stimuli.
  10. Explain how our brains organize the perceptual world.
    • Figure- Ground, Grouping, Auditory Scene Analysis (Gestalt principles)
  11. Explain perception of distance and location
    • Two dimensional location
    • Depth Perception via: interposition, relative size, height in visual field, texture gradients, linear perspective, motion parallax.
    • Accommodation, convergence and binocular disparity in visual system.
  12. Explain perception of motion

· Looming, stroboscopic motion

  1. Why do we perceive consistency in our world when our sense data is always changing? Explain perceptual consistency.

· Size, Shape and Brightness consistency.

Part 2 (pages 173-192) Due Wed. 12/2 and Thurs. 12/3

  1. How do culture, and experience shape perception of reality?
  2. Explain the concepts of “Bottom-Up” and “Top-Down” processing.
  3. What is the parallel distributed processing (PDP) model?
  4. How do developing infants demonstrate various aspects of perceptual processing?
  5. What is “attention?” How is it directed? What is “selective attention?”
  6. When is it possible to “multi-task” and when is it not possible? Why?
  7. How is perceptual research applied in the following fields?
    • Aviation, human-computer interaction, traffic safety, architecture & design

Bernstein Study Guide Chapter 5 Pp. 126 – 157 Due 12/7 (a) and 12/8 (b)

(You will be graded for completing and correcting the study guide assignments not for how many you got right.)

1. Skim outline Pp. 126-130 – Make sure you know underlined terms and that they are in your notes.

2. Meaningful Flashcards of ALL Key Terms Pp. 130- 133 - Note examples and mnemonics (only 33 this unit)

3. Do the fill-in-the-blanks key terms quiz on Pp. 134-135. Write the question with your answer. Check your work (P. 144) and write the correct answer for any you got wrong.

4. Review the “Learning Objectives” on Pp. 153-136 – These are good sources for possible FRQ questions.

5. Do Sample Quiz 1 on Pp. 138-141 and check your answers. For each wrong answer, write the correct answer and be sure the information is in your notes. (Answers start on P. 146)

Friday, November 20, 2009

Color Vision Simulator

How can only 3 types of color sensitive cone cells allow us to see millions of colors?
You can download a small Java application which will let you run a simulation of how Red, Green and Blue light can form all colors in our visual field at http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Color_Vision#topics .

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Are you a "Supertaster?"

We didn't get to this activity in class, but it is easy enough to do at home.

From http://www.thetech.org/genetics/supertaster.php

1. Draw a simple blank map of the tongue

2. Swab the blue food coloring on the front of the tongue (cover the tip and about 1/2 inch back). Have the subject move the tongue around in the mouth and swallow. This distributes the dye. Swallowing the dye is not hazardous. You will see pink circles emerge from the blue background. The pink circles are the fungiform papillae. The fungiform papillae appear pink because they do not stain.

3. Now use a hole-punched cards to take 4 or 5 samples from your partner’s tongue. Count how many papillae you find in the circle. Map these areas on your tongue drawing. What is the average number of papillae per sample?

Supertasters have an average of over 30 papillae hole punch.

Unit 4 Sensation Quiz on Monday 11/23 and Tuesday 11/24

Your homework which is due the day of the quiz is to:

Do both multiple choice sample quizzes in the Berntstein Study Guide starting on P. 108. Check your work and use it to guide your studies. Do sample quiz 1 first and use it as a guide for your studying. About a day or two before our quiz, do sample quiz 2 to see how much you have improved and to target your remaining studying.

Make 40 (meaningful) Flash Cards of Key Terms from the Study Guide book. Be sure to include # 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 17, 20, 22, 23, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 46, 49, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58,60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70 - You should select the other 8 terms on your own based on those concepts you are having the hardest time remembering.

Remember, distributed practice is best.

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Sensation - Chapter 4 Part 3 due Wed. 11/18 and Fri. 11/20

Bernstein Text Chapter 4, Part 3 – Pp. 131- 149 (Through Chapter Review)

Follow the reading instructions you received the first week of class and take Cornell notes as you read. As you take your notes remember to DRAW DIAGRAMS of important images, write your own examples, write your own mnemonic devices and write questions you think of. Your notes (and your brain) should contain the answers the following questions when you are done with this assignment:

Smell and Taste – The Chemical Senses Pp. 131-136

1. Define olfaction and gustation (and olfactory and gustatory)

2. What triggers olfactory receptors?

3. How many different types of olfactory receptors are there?

4. Describe the path signals from the olfactory receptors follow as they enter the brain and are processed.

5. Which brain structure usually associated with sensation is NOT involved with olfaction?

6. Explain the function of pheromones and the vomeronasal organ?

7. What are taste receptors called and where are they located?

8. How many taste buds are in a typical person? To what flavors are they sensitive?

9. How are supertasters different from normal people?

10. What are the components of flavor?

11. What is anosmia?

12. What is capsasin? Explain one theory of why people eat spicy foods.

13. Explain some adaptive (evolutionarily advantageous) functions of smell and taste.

Somatic Senses and the Vestibular System Pp. 137-145

14. What are the Somatic Senses?

15. Describe how touch receptors are different from most other neurons.

16. Explain sensory adaptation of touch receptors. Why is it evolutionarily adaptive?

17. Explain how weight and location are coded in the sense of touch.

18. Describe an example of how touch and temperature can interact.

19. Compare A-delta fiber pain and C fiber pain.

20. How does pain cause arousal? What structure is activated which would wake you up if someone poked you with a pin while you slept?

21. Explain how Gate Control Theory and natural analgesics explain pain relief.

22. What evidence is there that acupuncture relieves pain?

23. Define proprioception and kinesthesia.

24. Describe the structure and function of the vestibular system.


The above link is to an excellent animation which will help you understand the vestibular system.

Thursday, November 12, 2009

A Psychology Journal Created by High School Students


From the home page: "We are a dedicated team of individuals bent out on assisting other students publish their works in the field of psychology. The Journal is nationally recognized by many of the leading pioneers in psychology and is open to all students!

The Journal accepts black and white photo submissions for the cover as well for the inner folds of the current edition. Moreover, we accept research submissions within the field of psychology year round. To send in a submission, feel free to contact us at whitmanpsych@gmail.com."

Read through some of the articles in the current issue about topics ranging from how animals understand numbers to how religious faith affects drug use at here.

If you are interested in proposing an idea for submission to this prestigious high school journal please see me to discuss your idea make a plan to get it done.

Sensation - Chapter 4 Part 2 and Sensation Coloring Diagrams due Mon. 11/16 and Tue. 11/17

Color both the Ear and Eye coloring diagrams according to the directions. Note: Only color the structures underlined on the coloring plates. Read through all the text, but only focus and color those key structures.

Unit 4: Sensation – Part 2 – Vision (10 pts)

Bernstein Text Chapter 4, Part 2 – Pp. 117 -131 (through Synesthesia)

Follow the reading instructions you received the first week of class and take Cornell notes as you read. As you take your notes remember to DRAW DIAGRAMS of important images, write your own examples, write your own mnemonic devices and write questions you think of. Your notes (and your brain) should contain the answers the following questions when you are done with this assignment:

Light and Structure of the Eye Pp. 117-119

1. Describe the physical dimensions of light.

2. How do the physical properties of light relate to brightness and color?

3. How does visible light fit into the electromagnetic spectrum?

4. Describe and DRAW the major structures of the eye.

5. Describe the accessory structures and sensory receptor of the eye.

6. What is accommodation in vision?

Converting Light into Images & Visual Pathways Pp. 119 – 122


The above link is to an excellent animation which may help you understand some of the more complex aspects of visual processing in the retina.

7. What is visual transduction and were does it take place?

8. What are photoreceptors and photopigments? Where are they located?

9. What causes your eyes to take time to adjust when you go from bright sunlight to a dark room? What is this adjustment called?

10. Compare the structure, function and distribution of rods and cones.

11. What is the fovea?

12. How does “lateral inhibition” improve the sharpness and contrast of our vision?

13. What do ganglion cells do? Why would vision be impossible without them?

14. How do ganglion cells correspond to the visual field?

15. Describe how the center-surround fields of ganglion cells improves vision.

16. Why does everyone have a blind spot?

17. Describe how the optic nerves separate and cross at the optic chiasm.

18. How is spatial coding demonstrated in the retina, the LGN and the visual cortex?

19. Explain how parallel processing can analyze different types of visual information from the same visual data in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN.)

20. What are “feature detectors?”

21. Define the physical properties of color: hue, saturation and brightness.

22. Explain the “Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision.”

23. Explain the “Opponent-Process Theory of Color Vision.”

24. Describe and explain color blindness.

25. What is synesthesia?

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Sensation - Chapter 4 Part 1 due Thurs. 11/12 and Fri. 11/13

Notes on the reading (10 pts): Due November 12 and 13

Bernstein Text Chapter 4, Part 1 – Pp. 104 -116 (through frequency-matching theory)

Follow the reading instructions you received the first week of class and take Cornell notes as you read. As you take your notes remember to DRAW DIAGRAMS of important images, write your own examples, write your own mnemonic devices and write questions you think of. Your notes (and your brain) should contain the answers the following questions when you are done with this assignment:

General Sensation Pp. 104-109

1. What is a phantom limb?

2. Explain whether sensation is objective or subjective?

3. What is a “sense” and what is “sensation?”

4. Describe the difference between sensation and perception.

5. Define accessory structure, transduction, sensory receptor and adaptation.

6. What types of energy do our senses gather?

7. What role does the thalamus play in sensation? Which sense does not go through it?

8. Explain what “coding” is in sensory systems. Describe temporal and spatial coding.

9. Define the “doctrine of specific nerve energies.”

10. What is “contralateral representation?”

11. What is “topographical representation?”

Hearing Pp. 109-116

See http://www.medindia.net/animation/ear_anatomy.asp for good ear animation.

12. Define “sound.” Why is it true that, “In space, no one can hear you scream?”

13. Compare low-frequency and high-frequency sounds and their waveforms.

14. Describe physical characteristics of sound: amplitude, wavelength and frequency.

15. Describe psychological dimensions of sound: loudness, pitch and timbre (tamber).

16. Describe the ear’s accessory structures: pinna, ear canal, tympanic membrane

17. Describe the bones of the middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes), and the oval window.

18. Describe the structures on the inner ear: the cochlea, hair cells and basilar membrane.

19. What is the auditory nerve?

20. Describe different causes of deafness: conduction deafness and nerve deafness.

21. Where and what is the “primary auditory cortex?”

22. What are “preferred frequencies” and “frequency maps” in the auditory cortex?

23. Explain how intensity of sound is coded.

24. Compare “place theory” and “frequency matching theory” of frequency coding.

Saturday, November 7, 2009

Sunday, November 1, 2009